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introducció política
 Vita coetanea
 Illumination at Randa
 Ramon Llull and the politics of his day
 The Figure of ‘Ramon’
 Ramon Llull and Arabic culture
 Ramon Llull and the conversion of the Jews

It can be shown that Llull was perfectly capable of understanding the reality of the world in which he lived. Despite doing the reverse of the more ‘secularised’ theoreticians, such as Pierre Dubois, who proposed granting the Papacy control over the crusades, Llull knew very well that a crusade was impossible without the co-operation of Christian princes. He was a realist in the choice he made of his secular patrons. He never addressed himself to the Emperors or to the pretenders to the German Empire. On the other hand, he made representations to the Italian maritime republics and, above all, to the Kings of France and Aragon. The assistance of these powers was indispensable to a crusade and to the conversion of Islam. In spite of his Catalan origins, it was for France that he showed a greater preference.

From 1309 to 1311, Llull lent his support to the French claims regarding the Byzantine Empire and, surprisingly enough, also lent his support to the suppression of the Templars - and in this he did not exactly coincide with the leading thinkers of his day. In a series of treatises dedicated to Phillip IV, the Fair, (written in Paris between 1309 and 1311), he acknowledged clearly not only the pre-eminence of France in the West, but also the right of the King to intervene in Church affairs as a ‘doctor fidei christianae’ (‘doctor of the Christian faith’). He also sought Phillip’s help to combat Averroism in the University of Paris. Not only did he want Phillip, in accord with the papacy, to fund colleges for the teaching of eastern languages, but also to fuse the existing military orders into a single one, ‘quia rex est defensor fidei’ (‘because he is king and defender of the faith’). Llull contributed to the discussion of burning issues and his opinions took into account - in a very rapid and immediate fashion - the considerable change that had taken place within Christianity as symbolised by the translatio of the Papacy from Rome to Avignon. This realism bore its fruits. Llull received a document from Phillip the Fair in which he was described as a ‘vir bonus, justus et catholicus’ (‘a good, just and Catholic man’), a very useful testimonial if the criticisms formulated against Llull by a theologian as influential upon the Curia as Agustinus Triumphus are taken into account. It is also highly probable that French influence was the cause of Canon XI of the Council of Vienne, which founded chairs in certain centres for the teaching of eastern languages to future missionaries. This was the fulfilment of one of Llull’s most constant petitions.

The relationship between Llull and the French court did not prevent contact with the sovereigns of the house of Barcelona. Without ever losing sight of the objectives he had set himself, Llull knew how to vary the methods he employed. In 1305 he presented to James II his most important work concerning crusades, the Liber de fine, and made sure it also reached the new pope, Clement V. Llull was in contact with James II right up until his death.

Source: Hillgarth, J.N., “Raymond Lulle et l’utopie”, Estudios Lulianos 25 (1981-1983), pp. 176-177.


enllaç UB Centre de Documentació Ramon Llull